Transesterification of Tropical Edible Oils to Biodiesel Using Catalyst From Scylla serrata

Risfidian Mohadi, Hesti A. Harahap, Nurlisa Hidayati, Aldes Lesbani


Abstract: Scylla serata shell was decomposed at various temperatures ranging from 700-1100 oC to obtain calcium oxide. Calcium oxide from decomposed Scylla serrata shell was characterized through X-Ray analysis, FTIR spectroscopy, and morphology analysis. Furthermore, decomposed Scylla serrata shell was used as catalyst for transesterification of tropical edible oils to form biodiesel. Biodiesel was characterized through density, viscosity, fatty acid value, and iodine number. The results showed that decomposed Scylla serrata shell at 900 oC could produce calcium oxide similar with standard, which was indicated from X-ray powder diffraction pattern of decomposed shell with JCPDS data. FTIR spectrum showed that main vibration of calcium oxide was observed at 393 cm-1. Morphology analysis using SEM indicated that uniform calcium oxide was obtained after decomposition. The use of decomposed shell as base catalyst for transesterification of tropical edible oils resulted biodiesel with density, viscosity, fatty acid value, and iodine number appropriated with SNI standard.

Keywords: transesterification, edible oils, biodiesel, Scylla serrata

Abstrak (Indonesian): Scyalla serrata telah didekomposisi pada berbagai suhu dari 700-1100 oC untuk diperoleh kalsium oksida. Kalsium oksida hasil dekomposisi dari cangkang Scylla serrata dikarakterisasi melalui pengukuran sinar X, analisis FTIR, dan analisis morfologi. Lebih lanjut, dekomposisi cangkang Scylla serrata digunakan sebagai katalis transesterifikasi minyak yang dimakan dari daerah tropis menjadi biodisel. Biodiesel dikarakterisasi melalui penentuan densitas, viskositas, nilai asam lemak, dan bilangan iod. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa dekomposisi cangkang Scylla serrata pada 900 oC dapat menghasilkan kalsium oksida mirip kalsium oksida standar yang diindikasikan dari pola difraksi XRD yang mirip data JCPDS. Spektrum FTIR menunjukkan vibrasi utama kalsium oksida teramati pada bilangan gelombang 393 cm-1. Analisis morfologi menggunakan SEM menunjukkan bahwa bentuk yang lebih seragam diperoleh setelah proses dekomposisi. Penggunaan cangkang hasil dekomposisi sebagai katalis basa untuk transesterifikasi minyak yang dimakan dari daerah tropis menghasilkan biodisel dengan densitas, viskositas, nilai asam lemak, dan bilangan iod yang sesuai dengan standar SNI.

Kata kunci: transesterifikasi, minyak yang dimakan dari daerah tropis, biodiesel, Scylla serrata

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