Oxoplastics, Bioplastics, and their Potential of Microplastics Generation (Case Study: Indonesia)

Firdha Cahya Alam


Plastics are still becoming popular topic in public news. This was initiated by some sea-animals that was trapped by plastic straws, plastic fishing net, and the other plastic packaging. This plastics problem are starting to become global issue and escalate the awareness of people to reduce the plastics use. Some campaign of reducing plastic use are varied, such as starting a zero-waste lifestyle, banning plastics bags, and the other solution is using degradable plastics. Unfortunately, some of the degradable plastics just become a label and only part of greenwashing product. With the increasing issue of microplastics, this degradable plastics is still seen to be skeptical from some academic perspective. The other solution that becoming popular is using biodegradable plastics or bioplastics. This bioplastic is said to be a better option because it is made from natural substrate that easily degrade, edible, and claimed to be safer for the environment. But this claim is still need further research and also standardization of biodegradability definition. This review will provide about the definition of biodegradable plastics, the differences between oxoplastic and bioplastics; the implementation of bioplastic or oxoplastic product in Indonesia, and issue related to microplastic generation


oxoplastics, bioplastics; implementation; microplastic; waste management

Full Text:



Rhodes, C. J. (2018). Plastic Pollution and Potential Solutions. Science Progress, 101(3), 207–260. https://doi.org/10.3184/003685018X15294876706211

Kubowicz, Stephan; Booth, Andy M. 2017. Biodegradability of Plastics: Challenges and Misconceptions. Environ. Sci. Technol. 51, 12058-12060.

Saharan, B. S; Ankita; Sharma, Deepansh. 2012. Bioplastic for Sustainable Development: A Review. International Journal of Microbial Resource Technology, Vol. 1, No. 1 11-23

Karina, Myrtha. 2015. Penelitian Dan Pengembangan Plastik Ramah Lingkungan Di Indonesia. Prosiding Seminar Nasional Kulit, Karet, dan Plastik ke-4 Yogyakarta, 28 Oktober 2015 ISSN:2477-3298

Nafiyanto, Indra. Pembuatan Plastik Biodegradable Dari Limbah Bonggol Pisang Kepok Dengan Plasticizer Gliserol Dari Minyak Jelantah Dan Komposit Kitosan Dari Limbah Cangkang Bekicot (Achatina Fullica). Integrated Lab Journal 2339-0905, Vol 07, No. 01. 75-89

Abdullah, Akbar Hanif Dawam; Pudjiraharti, Sri; Karina, Myrtha; Putri, Oceu Dwi; & Fauziyyah, Rani Hasna. 2019. Fabrication and Characterization of Sweet Potato Starch-based Bioplastics Plasticized with Glycerol. Journal of Biological Sciences. Vol 19 (1): 57-64. ISSN 1727-3048.

Ginting, Muhammad Hendra S., Hasibuan, Rosdanelli., Lubis, Maulida., Iqbal, Nilna., Tanjung, Dicky S. 2016. Effect of Hydrochloric Acid Concentration as Chitosan Solvent on Mechanical Properties of Bioplastics from Durian Seed Starch (Durio Zibethinus) with Filler Chitosan and Plasticizer Glycerol. Full Paper Proceeding ECBA-2016, Vol 331, 3, 11-19

Maulida, Siagian, M., Tarigan, P. 2016. Production of Starch Based Bioplastic from Cassava Peel Reinforced with Microcrystalline Cellulose Avicel PH101 Using Sorbitol as Plasticizer. Journal of Physics: Conference Series 710, 012012

Kamsiati, Elmi., Herawati, Heny., Purwani, Endang Yuli. 2017. The Development Potential of Sago and Cassava Starch-Based Biodegradable Plastic in Indonesia. Jurnal Litbang Pertanian Vol 35,No. 2, 67-76

Isroi, Cifriadi, A., Panji, T., Wibowo, Nendyo A., Syamsu, K. 2017. Bioplastic production from cellulose of oil palm empty fruit bunch. International Conference on Biomass: Technology, Application, and Sustainable Development. IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Sciences: 65, 012011

Silviana, Rahayu, Puji. 2017. Production Bioplastic Based Sago Starch using Bamboo Microfibrillated Cellulose Reinforced KCl dispersed by Sonication. Reaktor, 17(3), 151-156

Cornelia, M., Syarief, R., Effendi, H., & Nurtama, B. (2013). Characteristics of Environmental Friendly Labeled Plastic Shopping Bags in Indonesia. Advanced Materials Research, 789, 300–304. doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/amr.789.300

Sofia, Ayu., Prasetya, Agung Tri., Kusumastuti, Ella. 2017. Komparasi Bioplastik Kulit Labu Kuning-Kitosan dengan Plasticizer dari Berbagai Variasi Sumber Gliserol. Indonesian Journal of Chemical Science. Vol 2.

http://telobag.com/ diakses 20 November 2022

https://www.greenhope.co/ecoplas diakses 20 November 2022

https://avanieco.sirclo.me/id accessed on 20 November 2022

https://www.enviplast.com/products-draft/ accessed on 20 November 2022

Soesanto, Qinan Maulana B., Prihadyanti, Dian., Hartiningsing., Fizzanty, Trina. 2016. Dynamics of Bioplastics Development in Indonesia. Journal of STI Policy and Management, 1(2), 153-161

Selke, Susan., Auras, Rafael., Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Aguirre, Edgar Castro; Cheruvathur, Rijosh; Liu, Yan. 2015. Evaluation of Biodegradation-Promoting Additives for Plastics. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2015, 49, 6, 3769-3777.

Roy, P. K., Hakkarainen, M., Varma, I. K., & Albertsson, A.-C. (2011). Degradable Polyethylene: Fantasy or Reality. Environmental Science & Technology, 45(10), 4217–4227. doi:10.1021/es104042f

Magdalena VAVERKOVÁ, Dana ADAMCOVÁ1, Jana KOTOVICOVÁ, František TOMAN. Evaluation of Biodegradability of Plastics Bags in Composting Conditions. Ecol Chem Eng S. 2014;21(1):45-57.

Greene, Joseph. Degradation of Biodegradable, UV-degradable and Oxodegradable Plastics in MSW In-vessel Composting Environment. Department of Mechanical Engineering Mechatronic Engineering and Manufacturing Technology, California State University. USA.

Abdelmoez W, Dahab I, Ragab EM, Abdelsalam OA, Mustafa A. Bio- and oxo-degradable plastics: Insights on facts and challenges. Polym Adv Technol. 2021; 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1002/pat.5253

European Commission. Report from the commission to the European parliament and the council: on the impact of the use of oxo-degradable plastic, including oxodegradable plastic carrier bags, on the environment. 2018.

https://www.greenhope.co/news-blogs/news-3 accessed on

Arthur, C., Baker, J., Bamford, H., 2009. Proceedings of the international research workshop on the occurrence, effects, and fate of microplastic marine debris. NOAA marine debris program. Technical memorandum NOS-OR&R-30. Available: https://marinedebris.noaa.gov/proceedings-second-research-workshop-microplastic-marine-debris.

GESAMP, 2015. Sources, fate and effects of microplastics in the marine environment (part

. Available: http://www.gesamp.org/publications/reports-and-studies-no-90.

J.P.G.L. Frias and R. Nash Marine Pollution Bulletin 138 (2019) 145–147 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2018.11.022

Weinstein, J. E., Dekle, J. L., Leads, R. R., & Hunter, R. A. (2020). Degradation of bio-based and biodegradable plastics in a salt marsh habitat: Another potential source of microplastics in coastal waters. Marine pollution bulletin, 160, 111518. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2020.111518

You Li et al 2021 IOP Conf. Ser.: Earth Environ. Sci. 631 012006

McCormick, A. R.,Hoellein, T. J.,London, M. G.,Hittie, J.,Scott, J. W., and Kelly, J. J..2016. Microplastic in surface waters of urban rivers: concentration, sources, and associated bacterial assemblages. Ecosphere 7(11):01556.10.1002/ecs2.1556

Johnny Gasperi, Stephanie L. Wright, Rachid Dris, France Collard, Corinne Mandin, Mohamed Guerrouache, Valérie Langlois, Frank J. Kelly, Bruno Tassin, Microplastics in air: Are we breathing it in?, Current Opinion in Environmental Science & Health, Vol 1, 2018, Pages 1-5, ISSN 2468-5844, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coesh.2017.10.002.

Barbara E Oßmann, Microplastics in drinking water? Present state of knowledge and open questions, Current Opinion in Food Science, Vol 41, 2021, 44-51,ISSN 2214-7993, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cofs.2021.02.011

Ragusa, A., Svelato, A., Santacroce, C., Catalano, P., Notarstefano, V., Carnevali, O., Papa, F., Rongioletti, M. C. A., Baiocco, F., Draghi, S., D'Amore, E., Rinaldo, D., Matta, M., & Giorgini, E. (2021). Plasticenta: First evidence of microplastics in human placenta. Environment international, 146, 106274. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2020.106274

Lauren C. Jenner, Jeanette M. Rotchell, Robert T. Bennett, Michael Cowen, Vasileios Tentzeris, Laura R. Sadofsky, Detection of microplastics in human lung tissue using μFTIR spectroscopy, Science of The Total Environment, Vol 831, 2022, 154907,ISSN 0048-9697, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.154907.

A.J. Verschoor 2015. Towards a definition of microplastics Considerations for the specification of physico-chemical properties RIVM Letter report 2015-0116

Huiyan Tong, Xiaocong Zhong, Zhenghang Duan, Xianliang Yi, Fanqi Cheng, Weiping Xu, Xiaojing Yang, Micro-and nanoplastics released from biodegradable and conventional plastics during degradation: Formation, aging factors, and toxicity, Science of The Total Environment, Volume 833, 2022, 155275, ISSN 0048-9697, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.155275.

Damanhuri, E., Handoko, W., Padmi, T. (2014). Municipal Solid Waste Management in Indonesia. In: Pariatamby, A., Tanaka, M. (eds) Municipal Solid Waste Management in Asia and the Pacific Islands. Environmental Science and Engineering. Springer, Singapore. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-4451-73-4_8

Xochitl, Q. P., María Del Consuelo, H. B., María Del Consuelo, M. S., Rosa María, E. V., & Alethia, V. M. (2021). Degradation of Plastics in Simulated Landfill Conditions. Polymers, 13(7), 1014. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13071014

Al-Salem S.M., Al-Hazza’a A., Karam H.J., Al-Wadi M.H., Al-Dhafeeri A.T., Al-Rowaih A.A. Insights into the evaluation of the abiotic and biotic degradation rate of commercial pro-oxidant filled polyethylene (PE) thin films. J. Environ. Manag. 2019;250:109475. doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2019.109475

V.C. Shruti, Gurusamy Kutralam-Muniasamy. 2019. Bioplastics: Missing link in the era of Microplastics. Science of the Total Environment 697, 134139

Karan, H., Funk, C., Grabert, M., Oey, M., & Hankamer, B. (2019). Green Bioplastics as Part of a Circular Bioeconomy. Trends in Plant Science. doi:10.1016/j.tplants.2018.11.010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22135/sje.2022.7.3.167-173


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2023 Sriwijaya Journal of Environment

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.