Air pollution in Kurdistan Region of Iraq: A review

Zanist Hama-Aziz

Abstract


Air pollution is an increasingly environmental problem worldwide. People from Iraq and the Kurdistan Region of Iraq (KRI) constantly complain of poor air quality in the region. Many studies have investigated particular aspects of air pollution in theKRI, the issue, however, has never been comprehensively discussed. This study, unlike its precedents, collects all the documents, research articles, and ground facts available concerning air pollution, and aims to thoroughly understand all dimensions of the issue and classifies its significant factors and sources. The result revealed that, compared to 40 years ago, current air quality in the KRI, specifically in the two largest cities of Erbil and Sulaimani, has deteriorated. The root causes were found to be political instability and wars in the region, a sharp increase in population, and poor public services. Similar to many other cities in the developing countries, sources such as transportation have contributed in the pollution. In addition, other significant sources such as dust storms, large and private power generators as well as household kerosene heaters which might not be present in other countries were found contributing in escalation of the pollution. It is concluded that air pollution in theKRIis the outcome of a variety of causes and sources some of which may not be common in other parts of the world.


Keywords


air pollution; transportation; dust storms; kerosene heaters; private power generators; Kurdistan Region of Iraq (KRI)

Full Text:

FULL TEXT PDF

References


WHO. (2019, 17 October 2020). Key facts. Available: https://www.who.int/news-room/air-pollution

S. N. Majid, "Valuation of ambient air pollution: a study of some urban areas in Sulaimani City and its surrounding/Kurdistan region of Iraq," PhD PhD thesis, Agriculture Sciences, University of Sulaimani, 2011.

V. Sissakian, N. Al-Ansari, and S. Knutsson, "Sand and dust storm events in Iraq," Journal of Natural Science, vol. 5, no. 10, pp. 1084-1094, 2013.

M. T. Chaichan, H. A. Kazem, and T. A. Abed, "Traffic and outdoor air pollution levels near highways in Baghdad, Iraq," Environment, development and sustainability, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 589-603, 2018.

WHO. (2016, 20 October 2020). Ambient air pollution: A global assessment of exposure and burden of disease. Available: https://www.who.int/phe/publications/air-pollution-global-assessment/en/

A. Alnasrawi, "Economic devastation, underdevelopment, and outlook," in Iraq Since the Gulf War: Prospects for Democracy, F. Hazelton, Ed. London: Zed Books, 1994, pp. 72–69.

M. Leezenberg, "The Anfal Operations in Iraqi Kurdistan," in Centuries of Genocide: Essays and Eyewitness Accounts, S. Totten and W. Parsons, Eds. 4th ed. New York: Routledge, 2013, pp. 359-421.

H. Ascensio and M. Dixneuf, "Sanctions Against Iraq and Human Rights:a devastating, misguided, intolerable method," International Federation for Human Rights2002.

R. Morran, R. Normand, J. Paul, J. Rempel, and C. Wilcke, "Iraq Sanctions: Humanitarian Implications and Options for the Future," in Global Policy Forum, Aug, 2002, vol. 6.

A. Kirk and G. Sawdon, "Understanding Kurdish Livelihoods in Northern Iraq: Final Report," The Northern Iraq Country Programme and the Food Security and Livelihoods Unit, Save the Children, UK, London2002.

M. K. R. Hassan, "Urban environmental problems in cities of the Kurdistan region in Iraq," Local Environment, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 59-72, 2010.

G. T. Miller and S. E. Spoolman, Environmental science, thirteenth ed. Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning, 2010.

J. H. Withgott, M. Laposata, and B. Murck, Environment: The Science Behind the Stories, Third Canadian ed. Toronto: Pearson, 2016.

M. R. Chertow, "The IPAT equation and its variants," Journal of industrial ecology, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 13-29, 2000.

D. T. Menmy. (2019, 6 October 2020). Iraqi population census raises concerns of Kurds. Available: https://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2019/09/iraq-census-kurdistan-baghdad.html

H. Mohammed, D. Jaff, and S. Schrock, "The challenges impeding traffic safety improvements in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq," Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives, p. 100029, 2019.

Trading Economics. (2020, 26 October 2020). Iran Population. Available: https://tradingeconomics.com/iran/population

UNHCR. (2019, 11 November 2020). Iraq emergency. Available: https://www.unhcr.org/iraq-emergency.html

Durable Solutions Platform. (2019, 16 October 2020). Far from home: future prospects for Syrian refugees in Iraq. Available: https://reliefweb.int/report/iraq/far-home-future-prospects-syrian-refugees-iraq

Transparency International. (2019, 27 October 2020). Corruption Perceptions Index 2019. Available: https://www.transparency.org/cpi2019

H. Lynch. (2019, 16 October 2020). Kurdistan’s illegal oil refineries devastate land and public health. Available: https://www.rudaw.net/english/kurdistan/230920191

S. Ali. (2019, 16 October 2020). Illegal oil refineries in Erbil threaten health, environment: Official. Available: https://www.kurdistan24.net/en/news/9c3b84ad-c32c-4baf-b9dc-b8ae5bdc9814

S.-C. Chang and T.-y. Chang, "The relationships between corruption and pollution on corruption regimes," Economics Bulletin, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 1942-1949, 2010.

L. Pellegrini and R. Gerlagh, "Corruption, democracy, and environmental policy: an empirical contribution to the debate," The Journal of Environment & Development, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 332-354, 2006.

United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2019, 24 October 2020). National Ambient Air Quality Standards Table. Available: https://www.epa.gov/criteria-air-pollutants/naaqs-table

European Commission. (2019, 24 October 2020). Air Quality Standards. Available: https://ec.europa.eu/environment/air/quality/standards.htm

T. M. Ahmed, B. Ahmed, B. K. Aziz, C. Bergvall, and R. Westerholm, "Native and oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air particulate matter from the city of Sulaimaniyah in Iraq," Atmospheric Environment, vol. 116, pp. 44-50, 2015.

B. Ostro, "Outdoor air pollution: Assessing the environmental burden of disease at national and local levels," in "Environmental Burden of Disease, Series, No. 5.," World Health Organization2004.

S. A. F. Al-Arkawazi, "Measuring the Influences and Impacts of Signalized Intersection Delay Reduction on the Fuel Consumption, Operation Cost and Exhaust Emissions," Civil Engineering Journal, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 552-571, 2018.

X. Basagaña et al., "Effect of public transport strikes on air pollution levels in Barcelona (Spain)," Science of the total environment, vol. 610, pp. 1076-1082, 2018.

D. Rojas-Rueda, A. De Nazelle, O. Teixidó, and M. Nieuwenhuijsen, "Replacing car trips by increasing bike and public transport in the greater Barcelona metropolitan area: a health impact assessment study," Environment international, vol. 49, pp. 100-109, 2012.

R. J. Shapiro, K. A. Hassett, and F. S. Arnold, "Conserving energy and preserving the environment: The role of public transportation," American Public Transportation Association2002.

Mees. (2019, 11 November 2020). Iraqi Kurdistan closes in on 500,000 B/D oil production. Available: https://www.mees.com/2019/11/8/oil-gas/iraqi-kurdistan-closes-in-on-500000-bd-oil-production/ba290690-022a-11ea-ba52-91403fec96f0

A. Miri, H. Ahmadi, A. Ghanbari, and A. Moghaddamnia, "Dust storms impacts on air pollution and public health under hot and dry climate," International journal of energy and environment, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 101-105, 2007.

S. J. A. Ebrahimi, L. Ebrahimzadeh, A. Eslami, and F. Bidarpoor, "Effects of dust storm events on emergency admissions for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases in Sanandaj, Iran," Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering, vol. 12, no. 1, p. 110, 2014.

M. Kobler. (2013, 21 October 2020). Combating dust-storms: our responsibility to future generations. Available: http://www.uniraq.com/index.php?option=com_k2&view=item&id=403:combating-dust-storms-our-responsibility-to-future-generations&Itemid=606〈=en

Desert Research Institute. (2013, 17 March 2020). Integrated desert terrain forecasting for military operations (DTF). Available: https://www.dri.edu/earth-ecosystem-sciences/earth-eco-research/1782-integrated-desert-terrain-forecasting-for-military-operations-dod-desert-terrain

Q. Y. Al-Kubaisi and L. M. Gardi, "Dust storm in Erbil city as a result of climatic change in Kurdistan Region Iraq," Iraqi Journal of Science, vol. 53, no. Special Issue, pp. 40-44, 2012.

M. A. Al-Dabbas, M. A. Abbas, and R. M. Al-Khafaji, "Dust storms loads analyses—Iraq," Arabian Journal of Geosciences, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 121-131, 2012.

N. Al-Ansari, M. Abdellatif, M. Ezeelden, S. S. Ali, and S. Knutsson, "Climate change and future long term trends of rainfall at north-eastern part of Iraq," Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 790-805, 2014.

USAID, "Climate Change Risk Profile: Iraq. Fact Sheet," USAID, Washington, D.C2017, Available: https://www.climatelinks.org/sites/default/files/asset/document/2017Mar3_GEMS_Climate%20Risk%20Profile_Iraq_FINAL.pdf.

A. I. Hussain, "The nature, source and composition of the dust storms in Tikrit/Iraq," Iraqi Journal of desert studies, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 23-34, 2012.

G. R. F. Ibrahim, "Urban land use land cover changes and their effect on land surface temperature: Case study using Dohuk City in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq," Climate, vol. 5, no. 1, p. 13, 2017.

A. Q. Jakhrani, A. R. H. Rigit, A.-K. Othman, S. R. Samo, and S. A. Kamboh, "Estimation of carbon footprints from diesel generator emissions," in 2012 International Conference on Green and Ubiquitous Technology, 2012, pp. 78-81: IEEE.

P. Saiyasitpanich, M. Lu, T. C. Keener, F. Liang, and S.-J. Khang, "The effect of diesel fuel sulfur content on particulate matter emissions for a nonroad diesel generator," Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, vol. 55, no. 7, pp. 993-998, 2005.

M. A. Mahammed, F. A. Kochery, and M. S. Abdulkhaliq, "Investigation of Noise Pollution of Electrical Diesel Generators in Duhok City/Kurdistan of Iraq," Science Journal of University of Zakho, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 319-324, 2013.

K. Tu and L. Hinchliffe, "A study of particulate emissions from portable space heaters," American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, vol. 44, no. 11, pp. 857-862, 1983.

P. A. Ruiz, C. Toro, J. Cáceres, G. Lopez, P. Oyola, and P. Koutrakis, "Effect of gas and kerosene space heaters on indoor air quality: a study in homes of Santiago, Chile," Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 98-108, 2010.

G. W. Traynor, M. G. Apte, H. A. Sokol, J. C. Chuang, W. G. Tucker, and J. L. Mumford, "Selected organic pollutant emissions from unvented kerosene space heaters," Environmental science & technology, vol. 24, no. 8, pp. 1265-1270, 1990.

B. P. Leaderer, P. M. Boone, and S. K. Hammond, "Total particle, sulfate, and acidic aerosol emissions from kerosine space heaters," Environmental Science & Technology, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 908-912, 1990.

P. B. Ryan, J. D. Spengler, and R. Letz, "The effects of kerosene heaters on indoor pollutant concentrations: a monitoring and modeling study," Atmospheric Environment (1967), vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 1339-1345, 1983.

B. P. Leaderer et al., "Indoor, outdoor, and regional summer and winter concentrations of PM10, PM2. 5, SO4 2-, H+, NH4+, NO3-, NH3, and nitrous acid in homes with and without kerosene space heaters," Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 107, no. 3, pp. 223-231, 1999.

K. Nawzad. (2019, 6 November 2020). Tent fire at IDP camp in Kirkuk kills four children. Available: https://www.kurdistan24.net/en/news/7715b960-2291-4f0a-9967-3a1caedd0a1e

Basnews English. (2019, 6 November 2020). Three Killed, One Injured in Akre Fire Incident. Available: http://www.basnews.com/index.php/en/news/kurdistan/504088

Basnews English. (2018, 30 October 2020). Two Teachers Slightly Injured in Erbil School Fire. Available: http://www.basnews.com/index.php/en/news/kurdistan/487634

Z. Z. Wali. (2019, 21 October 2020). Kurdish park rangers crack down on tree felling as winter approaches Available: https://www.rudaw.net/english/kurdistan/311020191




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22135/sje.2021.6.3.127-136

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2022 Sriwijaya Journal of Environment